Cannabissativa, commonly known as Marijuana, is the known prevalent recreational drug used in most states in the globe. It’s either smoked or food ingested. Dependent on how it was consumed (smoked or eaten) , TCH (tetrahydrocannabinol) which is present in marijuana, causes intoxication effects but the level of intoxication differs from how much was taken and how it was consumed. Marijuana users rather abuse this drug because of the intoxication or rather it causes the feeling of being “high”.
Marijuana use disorder becomes addiction when the person cannot function without the drug despite it interfering with many aspects of his or her life. Data suggests that 30 % of marijuana users may have some degree of marijuana use disorder. People who begin using marijuana before the age of 18 are 4 -7 times more likely to develop a marijuana use disorder than adults.
Categorized into three:
- Psychological effects
- It impairs one thinking.
- Hallucination and flashbacks
- Social effects
- Risk of pregnancy (for adolescents, since they may engage into sexual activities)
- School drop out
- Less achievements educationally and occupationally
- Less motivation
- Depression especially if mixed with other drugs and alcohol.
- Mood and sleep difficulties
- Report of irritability.
- Physical effect
- Risk of sexual dysfunction and premature ejaculation.
- Sexual Transmitted Diseases; this occurs due to the many sexual partners one engages with.
- Negative effect on muscle skill
- Uncontrollable aggressiveness
- Panic attacks.
- Affects developing fetus: associated with negative effects on fetal growth and body weight, as well as on learning, memory, and decision making in the child who was exposed to marijuana before birth.
- Decreased appetite & at times one also gets cravings.
- Physical discomfort.
In conjunction with these options of treatment, comes alongside the need to be in a rehabilitation centre for effective results without relapse or derailments.
To treat marijuana addiction and build a foundation for sustained recovery, a treatment plan must address the physiological as well as psychological components of addiction. Treatment should include individual and group therapy, educational programs, family counselling, relapse prevention, and other therapeutic components.
Some of the treatments include;
- Behavioural treatment which include :
- Motivational enhancement (MET) – which is designed to reduce a person’s resistance from being unable to abstain from using marijuana and having no motivation to stop.
- Cognitive-behavioural therapy (CBT) – teaches the individual skills on stopping and avoiding/managing the usage of drugs.
- Contingency management (CM) – provides positive voucher rewards for repeatedly negative results.
- Family based treatments are also effective.
- Prescribed antidepressants medications like nefazodone(Serzone) and fluoxetine (Prozac) helps in managing drug withdrawal and avoids relapse, respectively.
- Oral THC (dronabinol) alleviates symptoms of drug withdrawal.
- Psychotherapeutic approaches will help the addict learn to cope with the habit.
According to research, medication that treats marijuana-use disorders clearly has not been discovered yet.